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HALLOWEEN HISTORY

Halloween History & Origin

According to the website Halloween (http://www.halloween-website.com/history.htm)

“Halloween is the one of the oldest holidays still celebrated today. It’s one of the most popular holidays, second only to Christmas. While millions of people celebrate Halloween without knowing its origins and myths, the history and facts of Halloween make the holiday more fascinating.

Some people view Halloween as a time for fun, putting on costumes, trick-or-treating, and having theme parties. Others view it as a time of superstitions, ghosts, goblins and evil spirits that should be avoided at all costs.

As the Christian debate goes on, celebrating Halloween is a preference that is not always viewed as participating in an evil holiday. Halloween is often celebrated with no reference to pagan rituals or the occult.

Halloween History

Halloween is on October 31st, the last day of the Celtic calendar. It was originally a pagan holiday, honoring the dead. Halloween was referred to as All Hallows Eve and dates back to over 2000 years ago.

All Hallows Eve is the evening before All Saints Day, which was created by Christians to convert pagans, and is celebrated on November 1st. The Catholic church honored saints on this designated day.

Origin of Halloween

While there are many versions of the origins and old customs of Halloween, some remain consistent by all accounts. Different cultures view Halloween somewhat differently but traditional Halloween practices remain the same.

Halloween culture can be traced back to the Druids, a Celtic culture in Ireland, Britain and Northern Europe. Roots lay in the feast of Samhain, which was annually on October 31st to honor the dead.

Samhain signifies “summers end” or November. Samhain was a harvest festival with huge sacred bonfires, marking the end of the Celtic year and beginning of a new one. Many of the practices involved in this celebration were fed on superstition.

The Celts believed the souls of the dead roamed the streets and villages at night. Since not all spirits were thought to be friendly, gifts and treats were left out to pacify the evil and ensure next years crops would be plentiful. This custom evolved into trick-or-treating.”

So, what about costumes? Where did they come from? Well, I did some checking around, and found this a lot of fascinating information from Live Science

(https://www.livescience.com/40596-history-of-halloween.html)

Samhain

Halloween, also known as All Hallows’ Eve, can be traced back about 2,000 years to a pre-Christian Celtic festival held around Nov. 1 called “Samhain means ‘summer’s end’ in Gaelic, according to the Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries. [13 Halloween Superstitions & Traditions Explained]and its exact nature is not fully understood…It was an annual communal meeting at the end of the harvest year, where the community gathered resources for the winter and brought animals back from the pastures. Samhain is also thought to have been a time of communing with the dead, according to folklorist John Santino.

‘There was a belief that it was a day when spirits of the dead would cross over into the other world,’ Santino told Live Science. Such moments of transition in the year have always been thought to be special and supernatural, he added.

Halloween provides a safe way to play with the concept of death, Santino said. People dress up as the living dead, and fake gravestones adorn front lawns — activities that wouldn’t be tolerated at other times of the year, he said.

However, Nicholas Rogers, a history professor at York University in Toronto and author of “Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night” (Oxford University Press, 2003), states,”there is no hard evidence that Samhain was specifically devoted to the dead or to ancestor worship.

“According to the ancient sagas, Samhain was the time when tribal peoples paid tribute to their conquerors and when the sidh [ancient mounds] might reveal the magnificent palaces of the gods of the underworld,” Rogers wrote. Samhain was less about death or evil than about the changing of seasons and preparing for the dormancy (and rebirth) of nature as summer turned to winter, he said.

Though a direct connection between Halloween and Samhain has never been proven, many scholars believe that because All Saints’ Day (or All Hallows’ Mass, celebrated on Nov. 1) and Samhain, are so close together on the calendar that they influenced each other and later combined into the celebration now called Halloween.

The tradition of dressing in costumes and trick-or-treating may go back to the practice of “mumming” and “guising,” in which people would disguise themselves and go door-to-door, asking for food, Santino said. Early costumes were usually disguises, often woven out of straw, he said, and sometimes people wore costumes to perform in plays or skits.

The practice may also be related to the medieval custom of “souling” in Britain and Ireland, when poor people would knock on doors on Hallowmas (Nov. 1), asking for food in exchange for prayers for the dead.

Trick-or-treating didn’t start in the United States until World War II, but American kids were known to go out on Thanksgiving and ask for food — a practice known as Thanksgiving begging, Santino said.

“Mass solicitation rituals are pretty common, and are usually associated with winter holidays,” Santino said. While one tradition didn’t necessarily cause the others, they were “similar and parallel,” he said.

These days, the “trick” part of the phrase “trick or treat” is mostly an empty threat, but pranks have long been a part of the holiday.

By the late 1800s, the tradition of playing tricks on Halloween was well established. In the United States and Canada, the pranks included tipping over outhouses, opening farmers’ gates and egging houses. But by the 1920s and ’30s, the celebrations more closely resembled an unruly block party, and the acts of vandalism got more serious.

Some people believe that because pranking was starting to get dangerous and out of hand, parents and town leaders began to encourage dressing up and trick-or-treating as a safe alternative to doing pranks, Santino said.

However, Halloween was as much a time for festivities and games as it was for playing tricks or asking for treats. Apples are associated with Halloween, both as a treat and in the game of bobbing for apples, a game that since the colonial era in America was used for fortune-telling. Legend has it that the first person to pluck an apple from the water-filled bucket without using his or her hands would be the first to marry, according to the book “Halloween and Commemorations of the Dead” (Chelsea House, 2009) by Roseanne Montillo.

Apples were also part of another form of marriage prophecy. According to legend, on Halloween (sometimes at the stroke of midnight), young women would peel an apple into one continuous strip and throw it over her shoulder. The apple skin would supposedly land in the shape of the first letter of her future husband’s name.

Another Halloween ritual involved looking in a mirror at midnight by candlelight, for a future husband’s face was said to appear. (A scary variation of this later became the ‘Bloody Mary’ ritual familiar to many schoolgirls.) Like many such childhood games, it was likely done in fun, though at least some people took it seriously. [Why Do We Carve Pumpkins at Halloween?]

Some evangelical Christians have expressed concern that Halloween is somehow satanic because of its roots in pagan ritual. However, ancient Celts did not worship anything resembling the Christian devil and had no concept of it. In fact, the Samhain festival had long since vanished by the time the Catholic Church began persecuting witches in its search for satanic cabals. And, of course, black cats do not need to have any association with witchcraft to be considered evil — simply crossing their path is considered bad luck any time of year.

As for modern Halloween, Santino, writing in “American Folklore: An Encyclopedia” (Garland, 1996), noted that “Halloween beliefs and customs were brought to North America with the earliest Irish immigrants, then by the great waves of Irish immigrants fleeing the famines of the first half of the nineteenth century. Known in the North American continent since colonial days, by the middle of the twentieth century Halloween had become largely a children’s holiday.” Since that time, the holiday’s popularity increased dramatically as adults, communities and institutions (such as schools, campuses and commercial haunted houses) have embraced the event.

Through the ages, various supernatural entities — including fairies and witches — came to be associated with Halloween, and more than a century ago in Ireland, the event was said to be a time when spirits of the dead could return to their old haunting grounds. Dressing up as ghosts or witches became fashionable, though as the holiday became more widespread and more commercialized (and with the arrival of mass-manufactured costumes), the selection of disguises for kids and adults greatly expanded beyond monsters to include everything from superheroes to princesses to politicians.

This article was originally published in 2014 and has been updated by Alina Bradford, Tanya Lewis and Jeanna Bryner. 

Author Bio


Benjamin Radford

Benjamin Radford, Live Science Contributor
Benjamin Radford is the Bad Science columnist for Live Science. He covers pseudoscience, psychology, urban legends and the science behind “unexplained” or mysterious phenomenon. Ben has a master’s degree in education and a bachelor’s degree in psychology. He is deputy editor of Skeptical Inquirer science magazine and has written, edited or contributed to more than 20 books, including “Scientific Paranormal Investigation: How to Solve Unexplained Mysteries,” “Tracking the Chupacabra: The Vampire Beast in Fact, Fiction, and Folklore” and “Investigating Ghosts: The Scientific Search for Spirits,” out in fall 2017. His website is www.BenjaminRadford.com.

 

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INTERNATIONAL WOMAN OF MYSTERY AND STYLE: GIGI MARIE

 

The colorful mask does not hide the warmth of Gigi’s heart!

Every moment spent with Gigi Marie is precious!  She is a WOMAN of mystery, who has a heart of gold and a force to be reckoned with!

I caught up with Miss Gigi (or GiWah as she is fondly known to her family) recently and had a chance to ask her how things are going.

Gigi Marie expressed great concern for other pets, especially those impacted by all the floods and fires.  She has given money to help them find safety, food, water, shelter, have their medical needs met and, in some cases, new homes. She has a wonderful family and truly wishes the same for all other animals and pets.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gigi Marie is a Bichon Yorkie girl with gorgeous wavy locks. True to the nature of Bichon Yorkies, she is very loving and sweet (although there are some exceptions…) and she is uber smart!  She knows her way around the neighborhood, which homes and people are friendly, and has an enormous sense of style. When she was a wee little puppy her coat was a rich apricot, but, like many so many ladies of fashion, she has gotten blonder with age.  So, now, her hair seems to be beautifully frosted with hints of apricot showing underneath.

She does like to maintain a bit of mystery — what woman doesn’t? When I asked her about her “story” she got quiet and demurred about her earliest days. It was a difficult time until her parents rescued her from a bad situation. However Miss Gi visibly brightened and wagged her tail as we discussed her home life today. She adores her Mother and Father!

They adore her, too! They even have a portrait of her hanging in their family room.

This lovely portrait captures Gigi’s charm and grace.

She loves them very much and definitely feels that she is at the heart of their family. She misses them when they are gone and wants to be part of everything that they do — even going so far as to help them host whenever there are guests in the house. Gigi Marie is an excellent conversationalist! She goes on lots of long walks with both her Mom and Dad and her Grandparents.  She especially loves to go see Grandma and Grandpa because she is THE CENTER of attention at their house!

A social girl, Miss Gigi adores (most of) her neighbors and likes to dress up as she parades around the ‘hood.  Here are a couple of her favorite outfits.

A pink slicker keeps away the raindrops!
Gigi Marie is ready for Halloween!

How does she maintain her svelte figure and stunning coat and nails?  The daily walks are a MUST!  A long walk early in the day is usually followed by several little jaunts later on. She loves the exercise, but, she is also interested in everyone she sees and smells!

Every now and again Miss Gi gets taken out to dinner at Chick-Fil-A and indulges in chicken nuggets, one of her favorite foods. But, the daily strolls keep her in fine form.

Besides daily brushing, her mother gives her a bubble bath every two weeks so that her locks remain luxurious. And, finally, like every lady, she loves to “spa” it every six or seven weeks. Those visits to her groomer ensure that her nails are clipped, and she gets a new “do” and a blow dry.

Gigi and her Mom enjoy Gigi’s beauty regimen.
GiWah’s special shampoo.

 

Regular baths keep Gigi’s hair shiny and fresh!

 

 

 

 

 

 

Miss Gigi sends her love and licks to all of you and your pets! She had a rough start and understands pain and suffering, so now she asks that you take very good care of your animal friends, and, support animal relief efforts. 

Now, it’s time for a treat!

 

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Helping Displaced Animals

 

Our pets need help too

As those of us lucky enough to live in areas that are not impacted by the recent natural disasters sit and watch the sad news of affected territories, we want to help! Providing assistance is so gratifying and one important way to help is to aid pets in disaster zones.
Through the efforts of dedicated organizations and volunteers animals have been relocated all over the United States. At the local level adoption of relocated pets is one of many ways that you can help out — contact your local SPCA or Animal Shelter for details.

One organization is consider supporting is “Wings of Rescue,” a donation-based charity founded in 2012. It flies large numbers of at risk, healthy pets long distances from high intake shelters to their network of no-kill shelters throughout the United States and Canada. They have estimated that in excess of 100,000 pets have already been displaced by Hurricanes Harvey and Irma. That number will steadily climb in the aftermath Hurricane Maria.

They feel better after being cleaned up …

According to Tim Rickey, Vice-President of the ASPCA Field Investigations and Response, “It’s critical for pet owners to consider their animals when preparing for any disaster, and we strongly urge them to always bring their animals with them if they have to evacuate their home.

“The ASPCA stands ready to assist animals in Hurricane Irma’s path, but the first and best line of defense for a pet will always be a well-prepared owner.”

Tips for Pet Owners from the ASPCA in the Event of Disasters:
If you evacuate, take your pets with you! Never leave them tethered to trees or poles, which prevents them from escaping high waters and getting to safe areas.
Make sure all pets are wearing ID tags with up-to-date contact information. The ASPCA also recommends micro-chipping your pet as a more permanent form of identification.
Create a pet emergency kit including medical records, water, bowls, pet food and pet medication.
Choose a designated caregiver, like a friend or relative outside the evacuation zone, who can care for your pet in the event you are unable.
Download the free ASPCA mobile app, which allows pet owners to store crucial pet records needed for boarding pets at evacuation shelters. It also includes a disaster preparedness checklist.

All animals need our help!

There are a host of other organizations that provide this critical assistance during these terrible times of need. Here are the names and addresses of a few:

RedRover, a national nonprofit animal welfare organization based in Sacramento.
Wings of Rescue, based in Livermore, is a group of volunteer pilots who fly pets to areas where they stand better chances of being adopted. In this case, they are flying pets to safer parts of the country, where they will be cared for until they can be reunited with their owners or found new homes. The group already has flown more than 300 dogs and cats to shelters in other states. The group is working with the Humane Society of the United States, Greater Good, Freekibble and Rescue Bank.

 

The premium dog and cat food brand “I and love and you,” based in Boulder, Colorado, another very generous company, is sending 20,000 dog and cat meals to the convention center in Houston as part of its “Hearts Fur Harvey” relief campaign. The company also is dedicating September to supporting rescue and shelter partners that are working hard to save the lives of Houston’s pets, and those in surrounding areas. The company also is asking others to donate.
AKC Reunite Canine Support and Relief Fund, so far, has donated more than $6 million since 2001 for disaster preparedness and relief causes that impact our nation’s pets. The group has workers in the field and also is raising money to support the shelters that are caring for the displaced animals..
The AKC Humane Fund has donated $10,000 through its “Sandy Fund” to the city of Houston to aid in relief efforts. Please visit their website for further information: www.akchumanefund.org

The Farmer’s Dog is supporting  St. Hubert’s Animal Welfare Center, a New Jersey-based organization that mobilized to welcome shelter dogs from elsewhere.

American Humane Association’s has animal first responders leading deployments in the disaster areas. They are providing rescue rigs, rescue staff, and trained first responder volunteers. They are also accepting donation of funds or supplies to utilize for these efforts.

American Pet Products Association is coordinating efforts with more than 1,200 pet product manufacturers to solicit donations, supplies, and assist in animal care efforts.

The American Veterinary Medical Association is providing reimbursement grants for veterinarians volunteering to assist. Its Board of Directors unanimously voted to contribute $100,000 to Hurricane Harvey relief efforts. To donate use the code “Disaster Relief.”

Mars Petcare has deployed sponsored canine search and rescue teams from National Disaster Search Dog Foundation to the Austin area to help. They will send more than 40,000 pounds of their food for pets in the area who are in immediate need of help.

Pet Food Institute members are working through their relationships with emergency relief organizations, foundations, partner shelters, and retailers to coordinate shipping of supplies and food to Texas.  The organization is helping to identify additional alternatives as current hub, Rescue Bank, is currently inaccessible.

Pet Industry Distributors Association is working with their distributors with facilities in Texas to coordinate distribution centers.

Petco Foundation has committed $2.3 million with product donations or grant support to nearly 20 organizations affected directly by Harvey or those taking in animals from other locations. They will continue to provide additional resources to support the ongoing response to threats of flooding, and forthcoming recovery efforts. They are also collecting donations from vendors and staging at warehouse locations in Texas, with additional opportunities in Louisiana. You can donate at any Petco Store.

Petmate is donating needed supplies to shelters and rescue organizations in the Dallas-Fort Worth area, including the Humane Society of North Texas, SPCA of Texas and Rescue Bank Dallas, to aid in efforts at housing thousands of displaced pets. They’ve also provided crates, kennels, leashes, blankets and more to several rescue teams and charity partners such as the MuttNation Foundation and Jackson Galaxy Foundation, which are making heroic and life-saving trips to Houston and the surrounding areas to transport pets out of the affected areas. Petmate employees also are collecting funds for the American Red Cross on behalf of the company.

PetSmart Charities has allocated an initial $1 million in emergency relief funding to assist animal welfare agencies working on the front lines to help pets and pet parents.

VCA Animal Hospitals  provides emergency care, medications and contact information. VCA doctors and medical teams are working on the ground and VCA Charities is fundraising through their hospitals via the Pennies for Pets program efforts. www.vcahospitals.com

World Pet Association is coordinating efforts with their members including manufacturers, retailers and distributors across the country in order to organize efforts and support immediate and ongoing needs. http://www.worldpetassociation.org/

Information for this article came from:

Hurricane Harvey: How you can help displaced pets


www.aspca.org

 

http://www.sthuberts.org

Wings Of Rescue Home

http://www.petco.com

http://www.akcreunie.org

http://www.akchumanefund.org

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EVERY GIRL’S DREAM

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EVERY GIRL’S DREAM